CONTENTS.

TITLE PAGE

INTRODUCTION

 

CARTISMANDUA,

QUEEN OF CYMBELINE.


Parentage of Cartismandua—Her father Afarwy leaves Britain—His daughter born—Cymbeline's education—Marriage of Cartismandua—Early habits of splendour—Her arrival in Britain—New coinage of Cymbeline—Children of Cartismandua—Adminius rebels, and flies to Rome—Death of Cymbeline—Cartismandua's possessions—She marries Cadallan—Intermarriages of their children—Caractacus—Habits of the northern tribes—Bericus—British produce—Invasion by Claudius—Cartismandua friendly to the Romans—Re-married to Venusius—They betray Caractacus—Cartismandua separates from Venusius, and marries his shield-bearer—Indignation of the British—Wars with the Scots—The Queen is taken—Her death Corbred's wars.

BOADICEA, "THE WARLIKE,"

QUEEN OF ARVIRAGUS.

The Pictish Princes—Cadallan—Metallanus—Boadicea's claims on British sympathy—British mothers—The Castle of Maidens—Education—Marriage and wrongs of Boadicea—Caractacus rouses himself—Arviragus throws off the Roman yoke—Defeat of the Britons—Roman triumph—Will of Prasutagus—Manner in which it was respected—Seneca as usurer—Outrages of the Romans—Rage and grief of the Britons—Boadicea's resolve—Corbred moved to help her—Insolent answer of the Romans—Taking of Mona—Boadicea's magnificent speech and prayer to Adraste—The hare—Preparations for the fight—Camalodunum—Omens—Fate of the city—Successes—Cruelties—St. Albans taken—The Wheel of Fortune turns—Reaction—Defeat of the Britons—Death of the Queen.

GWENISSA THE FAIR,

SECOND QUEEN OF ARVIRAGUS.

Political influence of Women—A Deputation sent to Rome to fetch Gwenissa as the bride of Arviragus—Customs of Roman betrothals—Gwenissa's family—She is supposed to be illegitimate—Lines of Harding on the Marriage of Arviragus and Gwenissa—The flowery mead—Gloucester built in honour of the event—Crowns of gold—The Emperor Claudius returns to Rome—Festivities in his honour—Beauty of Gwenissa—The love of her Husband for her—Its transient duration—He breaks with Rome—Gwenissa as Winner of Peace—Vespasian remains in Britain—Asserted visit to Britain of Joseph of Arimathea—The Twelve Hides of Glaston—Change in the fortunes of Gwenissa—Arviragus forsakes her for Boadicea—She dies of grief in giving birth to her son Marius.

JULIA "DOMINA,"

EMPRESS O SEVERUS.

Julia born in Phoenicia—Julia Maesa, her sister—Beauty and talents of Julia Domina—Her abstruse learning—Her ambitious views—Her arrival at the Imperial City—She is noticed by the Empress—Her success—Her admirers—Severus—The Augury—The Marriage of Julia—Children of Severus—Caracalla and Geta—Eastern Expedition of Severus—Julia becomes Empress—They go to Britain—Advance to Caledonia—Difficulties and Trials on the Campaign—Fulgent lays siege to York—Cruelty of Severus—Superstition of the Emperor—The Court at York—Luxury and pomp—The Emperor's death—Enmity of the Antonines—Return to Rome—Fratricide—Grief of Julia—Severity of Caracalla—Supposed marriage to her Step-son—His Murder—Julia dies—Her Sister's children—Her character as regards Britain.

VICTORIA, VITURGIA,
AND HUNILA,

EMPRESSES OF BONOSUS
AND PROCULUS.

Zenobia and Victoria—Influence of both—Character of Victorinus—His Murder, and that of his Son—Marius chosen by the Empress—His history and fate—Posthumus succeeds—AElianus—Tetricus appointed by Victoria—Constantius Chlorus in Britain—Victoria's sudden death by the treachery of Tetricus—Aurelian's Roman triumph—Viturgia and Proculus—Bonosus the Pedagogue—His rise—Aurelian bestows Hunila upon him—He proclaims himself Emperor of Britain, Gaul and Spain—His death—Probus settles a pension on Hunila.

ST. HELENA,

QUEEN OF
CONSTANTIUS CHLORUS.

Daughter of Coel, the Hawk-faced—Particulars of her birth—Her accomplishments and virtues—Constantius in Britain—Carausius—Romantic stories of Helena—Disputes as to her birth—Colchester claims the honour—She marries Constantius—Her children—Reverses—Galerius and Valeria—Constantius and Theodora—Maximian—Helena's self-devotion—Empty honours—Constantine at Rome—The four Empires—York—Character of Constantius—Persecution of Christians—Theodora's children—Constantia—Death of Constantius—Excellent conduct of Helena to Theodora—Power she enjoyed—Fausta and her father—The Plot discovered, and its punishment—Policy of Helena—Expedition of Constantine against Maxentius—The Cross—Conversion of the Emperor—Cities founded in honour of Helena—Helena's writings—Tragedy of Fausta and her son—Helena undertakes the care of the children of the Emperor—At eighty, Helena undertakes her journey to the East—The finding of the Cross—Relics—Her death—Honours to her memory—Traces of Helena in Britain—Her Causeway.

CARTANDIS,

QUEEN OF EUGENIUS I.

Eugenius slain in battle—Decree of Maximus—Prayers of the widow and noble ladies—The Picts interrupt their devotions—Appeal of Cartandis to Maximus—His generous sympathy—He sends her escorted to Carrick—Attack of Pictish robbers—She returns to the Emperor—Enmity of depicts—Their remonstrances—Scene of the Picts and Cartandis before Maximus—Her agony and entreaties—Success of Cartandis through the good feeling of the Emperor.

HELENA AP EUDDA,

EMPRESS OF MAXIMUS.

Parentage of Helena—The aspirants for her hand—Her Father wishes her marriage—Maximus proposed—Conan objects, but consents at length—Deputation—Character of Maximus—He arrives at Southampton—Promise, and ceremony of Marriage—Dream of Maxen-Wledig, a Welsh romance—Caernarvon—The Fort—The Will—Kynan-Meriadec of Armorica—Maximus and his bride at Treves—St. Martin of Tours—The devotion of Helena to him—Gratian's fate—Ursula and the "Eleven Thousand" victims—Successes of Maximus—Reverses—His death, and that of his son Victor—The Tears of Helena, and her Fountain.

ROWENA,

SECOND QUEEN OF VORTIGERN.

Vortigern, hoping to establish order in Britain, invites Hengist and Horsa—Arrival of the Saxons—The feast at Thong Castle—The fatal Was-heil—Rowena's beauty—Dress of Saxon ladies—Marriage of Vortigern—His first wife—Gods of the Saxons—The Irminsula—Discontent of the Britons—Excommunication and separation—Vortimer proclaimed King—Fury of Hengist—Rowena's artifices—She poisons Vortimer in a nosegay—Vortigern consults Merlin—History of Ambrosius—The fortress in Snowdon—The massacre at Ambresbury—The Valley of Vortigern.

GUENEVER I.,

QUEEN OF ARTHUR

The beauty of the three Guenevers—Parentage of Arthur's first Queen—The Earl of Cornwall—Tintagel Castle described—Uther the Terrible, and his love for Igwerna—The Merlins—Gorolois and his wife—Uther marries the widow of Gorolois—Birth of Arthur—The Comet—Pendragon—Love of Arthur for his wife—She is carried off by the Duke of Somerset—Confined at Glastonbury—The Abbot obtains her release—She accompanies Arthur in an expedition against the Scots—First of the Twelve Battles—Guenever taken prisoner—She dies at Castle Dunbar—Tomb of Guenever and her maidens.

GUENEVER II.,

QUEEN OF ARTHUR.

Bridal festivities of Guenever, daughter of Uther ap Credawgal, at Carlisle—Arthur's Chamber—The Round Table—The Knights—The salt—The minstrels—Their accomplishments—The lady in her bower—The sweet key of Gwynedd—Customs at feasts—Grandeur of Arthur—Arthur a Christian—Arthur and Guenever in Brittany—The Fairy Morgana—The Coronation at Caerleon—Concourse of Kings—Guenever and the White Pigeon—Great ceremonies—Dubricius struck with the vanity of worldly grandeur—Retires to a cell—Arthur desires to be buried beside Guenever.

GUENEVER III.,

QUEEN OF ARTHUR.

Guenever, daughter of Gogauranus—The sisters of Arthur—Curious story of Feldemia and her friend—The children exchanged—The invasion—The "hag's" visit—Explanation and secrecy—Change in the manners of Arthur and his Court owing to the Pictish Princess—The enchanted mantle—Queen Guenever's disgrace—Sir Cradocke's triumph—The Three Battle—Knights of Britain—The Three Gift-Horses—The three Chaste Women—The fatal horn—King Mark's Queen—Tristan and Iseult—Queen Guenever and Lancelot—King Arthur's Castle at Camelot—His Courts—The King's nephews—Schools for British youth—Arthur quits his Court—Mordred's conduct—Battle of Camelford—Morgwenna and her maidens—Arthur's death—Constantine's cruelty—Guenever retires to Caerleon—Interred there—Discovery of Arthur's tomb.

BERTHA,

QUEEN OF ETHELBERT.

The daughter of Caribert—The two maids of honour—Dangerous confidences—The entertainment given by Ingoberga to her husband—The wool-spinner—The King's anger—The Queen's divorce—Her rival's advancement—The Queen retires to a convent—Bertha's education—Proposals of marriage from King Ethelbert of England declined on account of religion—Mirofleda supplanted by her sister—Excommunication and death of Caribert—Consent of Bertha, and arrival of the newly-married pair in England—Reside at Canterbury—Bertha's zeal in the Christian faith—Pope Gregory and Augustine—Fear of the Roman missionaries—Ethelbert receives them well, and becomes a convert—Churches—The Pope's letters—Conversion of Redwald—Story of Edwin—Bertha's death—Epitaph—Eadbald's remorse—He marries Emma.

ETHELBURGA "THE SILENT," AND ENFLEDA,

QUEENS OF EDWIN "THE GREAT"
AND OSWY.

Marriage of Ethelburga to Edwin—Paulinus—His zeal—The Life of Edwin attempted—A daughter, Enfleda, born—She is dedicated by her father to God—Pope Boniface—His letters—Coiffi, the priest—His famous speech and act—Edwin becomes a Christian—Hilda first appears—Numerous converts in Northumberland—Edwin's progresses—The Tufa—Edwin killed in battle against Penda—Eadfrid murdered—Ethelburga seeks protection with her brother, the King of Kent, accompanied by Paulinus—She sends her sons to France: they die there—She founds a nunnery, and takes the veil—Her acts of charity—The Danes—Enfleda demanded in marriage by Oswy—The voyage and the jars of oil—The marriage—Enfleda builds the Monastery of Tinemouth—Wilfred—Enfleda's daughter dedicated to God—Caedmon, the poet—The Synod at Whitby—The mother and daughter—The spirit of the Abbess.

ST. EBBA, QUENBURGA, SURNAMED "BEBBA," AND SAXBURGA,

QUEENS OF CWICHELME, KYNIGILS, AND CENWALCH.

The child Ebba's adventures—She enters a convent—Marries Cwichelme—Seeks the court of her brother Oswald—Her influence—Quenburga—Birinus—Kynigils—Saxburga repudiated—Penda's vengeance—Bebba and Bebbanburgh—Bamborough Castle—Oswald and Aidan—The silver dishes—Oswald's charity—The blessing—The Hermit's adventure—Oswald slain—The limbs of Oswald—Ostrida his niece—Ebba the Saint—The double Monastery—Saxburga and her husband reconciled—Conversions—The Plague—The Queen Regnant.

OSTRIDA AND WERBURGA,

QUEENS OF ETHELRED
AND CEOLRED.

Ostrida marries Ethelred, the youngest son of Penda—Elfwin slain—Archbishop Theodore endeavours to reconcile the Kings—Ostrida removes the bones of Saint Oswald—Abbey of Bardney—The miracle of the pillar of light—The standard—Embroidery—The spinsters—Visit of Ethelhild—Holy dust—Its effect—Ostrida slain—Ferocity of the times—Ethelred abdicates—He becomes Abbot at Bardney—Kenred makes a pilgrimage to Rome—Werberga enters a convent.

QUENBURGA, QUENSWITHA, AND ALFLEDA,

QUEENS OF ALFRED, PENDA, AND PEADA.

The daughters of Penda—Penda's warlike propensities—Queen Keniswitha accepts the care of Oswy's son—Quenburga's marriage—Peada and Alfleda—Stipulations—Peada baptized at Carlisle—Penda's opinions—Influence of females in conversion—Quenburga's devotion—Court of Alfred a monastic school—Alfred's death—Quenburga returns to her father's dominions—Retires to Dormund Caistor—The three sisters all become nuns—Penda's death—Death of Peada—His wife, his mother, and his mistress suspected of his murder—Oswy seizes his dominions—Two young princesses take the veil.

HERESWYTHA, SEXBURGA, ETHELDREDA, ERMENBERGA, AND ERMENILDA

QUEENS OF ANNA, ERCOMBERT, EGFRID, AND WULPHERE.

Religious enthusiasm—Church building—Queen Hereswytha, "the mother of many Saints"—Her husband, King Anna—Etheldreda and Thonbert—She retires to a monastery—Her second marriage to Egfrid—Their establishment—Egfrid's remonstrance—Etheldreda goes to a convent, accompanied by Bishop Wilfred—Architecture and Church Music patronised by Wilfred—Anger of Egfrid—Their separation: he re-marries—Ermenburge persecutes Wilfred—Anglo-Saxon carriage—Wilfred's trials—Sexburga's piety—Her daughter—The Abbess Hildelitha—The Convent of Minstre—Ermenilda's, and her young daughter Werburga's, piety—Murder of the young princes, Wulfade and Rufin—Werburga's profession—The Abbess Etheldreda's edifying death—St. Audrey's lace, and St. Etheldred's chain—Ely Monastery—Sexburga's happy death—The butterfly shadow—Miracles—St. Werburga, the Patroness of Chester—Ely Cathedral—Antiquities—The stone cross of Etheldreda.

DOMNEVA,

QUEEN OF MEROWALD.

Lady Eva—Marriage with the son of Penda—The Queen takes the veil in her husband Merowald's life—She founds the Abbey of Minstre, to atone for the murder of her brothers by Egbert—"The Deer's course"—Pious ruse—Fate of Thunor the murderer—The humility of Mildred—Leobgitha's verses—Gold and silver ink—The Abbess Eadburga—The letters of St. Boniface to the pious Abbess—The Danes—Mildgitha retires to Estrey—Estrey Court—The sepulchres of the murdered princes there—Mildburga and her father—Their tombs in the Abbey of Wenlock.

ETHELBURGA AND FRIDOGITHA,

QUEENS OF INA
AND ETHELARD.

Invasion of Ivor and Ina—Conditions of the Conquerors—Marriage of Ethelburga to Ivor—His death, and her marriage to his successor, Ina—The arch of Taunton Castle—Ealdbryht Clito besieged by Ethelburga—The "Western Key of the Kingdom"—The Laws of Ina—Guala—The learned men of Ina's time—The Abbey of Glastonbury, and its rich endowments—Ethelburga's pious project—The splendid banquet and the contrast—Its effect on the King—Discourse of Ethelburga—The Crown resigned—Ethelard—Preparations for a pilgrimage to Rome—Departure of the King and Queen as pilgrims—Arrival in Rome—Religious acts—The Saxon school of Ina at Rome—Romescot—Return to England of the royal pair—Death of Ina—Ethelburga at Barking—Cuthberga, Abbess of Wimbourne—Canonization of the Abbess—Queen—The three daughters of Ina—Fridogitha's liberality—Her piety and pilgrimage—Her death and canonization—St. Frideswide.

QUENDRIDA—PETRONILLA,

QUEEN OF OFFA
"THE PROUD."

Melo-dramatic legend of Quendrida—King Offa screened by monkish writers—Unknown crime of Petronilla—Exposure in an open boat—Stranding of the beautiful stranger on the Welsh coast—Meeting of Offa and Quendrida—Fascination of the young King—Opposition of his parents—The royal marriage—Death of both Offa's parents—Offa's early deficiencies—Sudden change—Beornred's wars—His defeat—Offa's dyke—The Emperor Charlemagne—His letters and presents to Offal—Demand in marriage of Prince and Princess—Interruption of the friendship of the two Kings—Close of the French ports—Alcuin the Learned—Harmony re-established—The Princess Eadburga's marriage—Young Ethelbert, King of East Anglia—His proposal for the hand of the beautiful Etheldritha, youngest daughter of Offa—Excellent character of Ethelbert—His arrival in Mercia—Omens—Rich gifts and grand retinue of the bridegroom—Etheldritha, at her window, admires the beauty and grandeur of her lover—Quendrida's envy and hatred—Offa's welcome—The Queen's treacherous proposal—The chair of state—The canopy and the well—The murder accomplished—Despair of the bride—Her anathema—She leaves her father's court—Offa's remorse—Banishment of the guilty Queen—The spoils she took—Robbers—Her deserved fate—Offa builds cathedrals—The shrine of St. Ethelbert—Divine judgment on Offa's race.

EADBURGA—ELFLEDA,

QUEENS OF BERTRIC
AND WIMOND.

Pride of Eadburga—Prince Egbert's banishment—He seeks shelter with Offa; is refused hospitality—Flies to the court of Charlemagne—The Queen's influence; her jealousy, and vindictive character—Infatuation of her husband—Her hatred of Worr—Her attempts to ruin him—Resistance of Bertric—The banquet—The poisoned cup—Death of the King and his friend—Flight of the Queen—She seeks the court of Charlemagne; is well received there at first—Her beauty and her gifts—Change of public estimation—Charlemagne's sarcastic offer—The incautious reply of the widow—The Emperor's contempt—His bestowal of a convent on her—Her conduct as Abbess—Her expulsion and degraded position—Her arrival at Pavia and destitution—Her death in misery—Her quaint epitaph—Detestation of her memory—Title of Queen not allowed by Anglo-Saxons—Egbert's succession—The contrast of the sisters—The Abbess of Croyland—Witlaf's sojourn and gifts; his attachment to Etheldritha—The Danes—Elfleda, daughter of Kenulf—Her son Wistan—Rejected offer of Berferth—Murder of Wistan.
QUENDRIDA II. The grand-daughter of Offa's Queen—Her great abilities and the high position she holds in the state—She is left guardian to her young brother Kenelm—Her sister Burganilda attached to the young King—His tutor Ascobert—The traitorous designs of Quendrida on the life of Kenelm—Ascobert agrees to aid her plans—Kenelm's dream—His uneasiness—He informs his nurse, who interprets it—Aware of his danger, he removes to a secure place—The Castle of Kenilworth chosen as his abode—The family of the Kenelms—The hunting excursion to Clint Wood—The murder of the young Prince, and concealment of his body in a pit—Quendrida mounts the throne—Is suspected by the people—Driven from the government, which is given to her uncle Kenulf—She assumes a religious habit, but retains her patrimony, the Abbey of Winchcomb—Touching legend of the revelation at Rome of the death of Kenelm—Discovery of the body—Canonization of the murdered Prince—Chapel built—Quendrida's scorn—The judgment of Heaven on her—Her death.

OSBURGA AND ETHELSWYTHA,

QUEENS OF ETHELWULF
AND BURHRED.

The mother of Alfred the Great—Earl Oslac, her father, cup-bearer to King Ethelwulf—Wars with the Danes—The King first intended for the Church—His choice of the cup-bearer's daughter—Her virtues and industry—Needlework of the Anglo-Saxon ladies—The five sons of Osburga—Her daughter Ethelswytha married to the King of Mercia—The title of Queen revived—The Danes overrun Mercia—Subdue Burhred, and force him to abandon his country—He dies at Rome—His Queen follows him, and dies on the road—Alfred's infancy—Prayer of Osburga—The story of the illuminated book of Saxon verse—The children's anxiety—Alfred's resolution and success—The pilgrimage to Rome of Ethelwulf, accompanied by his young son—Uncertainty respecting Osburga—Ethelwulf's return with Judith, the French princess—Death of Osburga.

JUDITH OF FRANCE,

SECOND QUEEN OF ETHELWULF.

Motives of Ethelwulf for his visits to the Court of Charles the Bald—Beauty of the Princess Judith—Attachment of Count Baldwin of Flanders—Ethelwulf's offer accepted—Splendid Marriage of Judith to Ethelwulf—Royal presents—Ethelwulf takes his bride to England—They are ill received—Ealstan, Bishop of Sherburne, excites Ethelbald to rebellion—Offence given to the Church—Ethelwulf proclaims Judith Queen, in despite of opposition—Ethelwulf yields to his son to avoid bloodshed—Judith crowned—Prayers on the occasion—Alfred and his young mother-in-law study together in retirement—Ethelwulf's death—Ethelbald forcibly marries his widow—Displeasure of the people and the clergy—He becomes penitent—Separates from Judith—She sells her dower, and travels, on her return to her father's court, through Flanders—Meeting of Judith and Baldwin—Consequences of her stay—Anger of Charles the Bald—She is placed in a convent—Rescued by her brothers—Elopes with Baldwin—Enmity and final forgiveness of the French King—The children of Judith—Matilda, wife of William of Normandy—Ballad of the imaginary adventures of the "King's Daughter."

ELSWITHA,

QUEEN OF ALFRED THE GREAT, AND ETHELFLEDA,
"LADY OF MERCIA,"

Romantic legend of the meeting of Alfred the Great and Elswitha—Albanac's family—The nocturnal visit—The daughters—The father's resolve—The choice offered—Marriage of Alfred and Elswitha—Sudden illness of the bridegroom—Connubial affection—Passage in Boethius—Famine in England—St. Swithun—Children of Elswitha—Her happiness, and fondness for her husband—Athelney—The Danes—Dangers—Generosity of Alfred—Monastery founded—Alfred's Will—Eadburga and Elswitha—St. Mary's, Newminster—Learning of Ethelfleda—Lady of Mercia—Her numerous fortresses—The captive Welsh Queen—Fleance, son of Banquo—Ancient Welsh customs—Candle-bearer's perquisites—Death of Ethelfleda—Mourned by King Edward—Elfwina dispossessed by her uncle—Ethelfleda buried in St. Peter's, Gloucester.

EGWINA, ELFLEDA, EDGIFA, AND ELFGIFA,

QUEENS OF EDWARD
"THE ELDER,"
AND EDMUND "THE PIOUS."

Romantic tale of Athelstan's mother—The loves of Egwina and Edward—Dream of the Shepherd's daughter—The nurse of the King's children—Adoption of Egwina—The bright light—Edward's second wife Elfleda; her seven children—His third wife Edgifa—Edgifa's lawsuit and will—Athelstan and Beatrice—Goda's dishonesty—Education of the family of Edward the Elder—Eadburga the nun; her choice—Edward's death, and his son Ethelwerd's—Athelstan named as successor—He provides for his family—Beatrice marries Sihtric, King of Northumberland—Edgifa marries Charles the Simple—Her trials and story—Edgifa and Elfgifa sent to Germany—Their marriage-list of the sisters—Hugh the Great and Edilda—The marriage presents—Revived fortunes of Edgifa and her son, Louis d'Outremer—Restoration and imprudence—Harshness of Louis to his mother—The widow of Edward the Elder still goes on with her lawsuit—Edmund the Pious—St. Dunstan—The precipice—Elfgiva—Legend—Explanation of the dream—Edmund assassinated—Reay Cross on Stanmore—Monasteries—Edred and St. Dunstan—Edwy the Tyrant; his ill usage of his grandmother—Edgar re-establishes her in her rights—She bestows her property on the church—Her death.

ETHELGIVA,

QUEEN OF EDWY
"THE FAIR."

Ethelgiva's relationship to the young Prince Edwy the Fair—Her extreme beauty—St. Dunstan's character and history—His contentions with the Devil; his temptations and triumphs—The fame of the Saint—St. Dunstan's mortification to find the young King married—The forced coronation—Flight of the King—Anger of the nobles—Rage of the Bishops—Discovery of the weeping Bride—Insults to Edwy and Ethelgiva—Passionate words of the Mother of the young Queen—Fury of Dunstan—Sympathy of the People for the Royal Pair—Ethelgiva refused the title of Queen—Edwy's dislike to the ambitious Prelate—The evil spirit at Glastonbury—Flight of Dunstan—His dangers from his enemies, the married priests—Security of the Royal Lovers—Seizure of Ethelgiva: horrible vengeance—She is sent to Ireland—Odo's representations to the King—His despair—His troubles—His brother Edgar—Recall of Dunstan—Divorce pronounced against Ethelgiva—Ex-communication of Edwy—Recovery of Ethelgiva, and attempt to return—Waylaid on her journey—Hamstrung and starved to death—Broken heart of Edwy—He dies—Buried at Winchester.

ELFRIDA,

QUEEN OF EDGAR
"THE PEACEABLE."

Edgar's volatile Character—Wulfreda, the nun—Ethelflede the Fair, mother of Edward—Her death, and Elfrida's beauty—Ethelwold's mission—His deception, and marriage to Elfrida—Misrepresentation to the king—Ethelwold's son—Hunting—The tribute of wolves' heads—The concealed beauty—Ethelwold's confession to his wife—Her resolve—Her conquest—The murder in the forest—Marriage of Edgar and Elfrida—St. Dunstan—Elfrida's power—Contentions—Ventriloquism—Ely—Ordwulf, the giant—Dissolute clergy—Coronation at Bath—King Edgar's death—Edward the Martyr—His cruel murder—Ethelred's tears: the whipping with wax candles—Plugging—Miracles—Penitence of the Queen postponed—Saxon verses—Dunstan's anathema—Murder of Brithnoth, Abbot of Ely—Ethelred asserts his will—Elfrida returns to Warewell—Her religious edifices—Wulfreda ejected from Barking—Death of Elfrida—Royal grant to the convent.

EMMA OF NORMANDY,

Surnamed "the Pearl."

QUEEN OF ETHELRED
"THE UNREADY"
AND CANUTE "THE GREAT."

The Pearl of Normandy—Parentage of Emma—Quarrels settled—Emma's Marriage with Ethelred, 1002, at Winchester—She receives the popular name of Elfgiva—Unsuitableness of Ethelred—His personal appearance—The songs of Gunnlaugr the Scald—The Sagas: their value—Danegelt, its odiousness to the English—Massacre of the Danes on the Eve of St. Brice—Gunilda's fate—Her anathema—Emma's sorrow concealed—The neglect of Ethelred towards his wife—She appeals to her brother—Anger of the Duke of Normandy—Reconciliation—Hugh and Alwyn—Siege of Exeter—Oath of fealty to Emma's unborn babe—Birth of her son, Edward the Confessor—Alfred, the eldest son, set aside on account of a prophecy—Emma flies from the troubles in England, with her children, to Normandy—Remains there two years—They are followed by Ethelred—" Unready" a title fitting for the weak King—London Bridge is broken down—Edmund Ironside—Algitha at Malmesbury Abbey—Death of Ethelred—Canute marries Emma—Her weight in gold—Influence of Emma—Mutual attachment—Danish Dandies—Drinking-cups—Back-gammon—Poets—Story of Canute and his courtiers—Splendid gifts to abbeys—The King's verses—Vauland, the smith—Hardicanute and Gunilda—King Olaf—Death of Canute—Earl Godwin's power—Treacherous letter to Emma's sons—Murder of Alfred—Suspicions—Harold—Emma's exile and return—Hardicanute—The gilded ship—The dwarf Mimicon—Death of Hardicanute—Edward succeeds—His conduct to his mother—The trial of the ploughshares—Triumph—Death of Emma.

EDITHA THE "GOOD,"

QUEEN OF EDWARD
"THE CONFESSOR."

"Rose among thorns"—Earl Godwin's romantic and eventful story—The Jarl Ulf in the forest—The peasant-boy—King Canute's new soldier—His advancement—Marries Githa; made Earl—Thora and the slave trade—Bristol the mart—Godwin's connexion with royalty—Editha's beauty and meekness—The compact of Earl Godwin—Delays of King Edward—His dislike to the match with Editha—Their marriage—Edward's coldness—Dress and manners of the time—Splendour of priests—Wulstan's reproof—Long hair—Editha's humility—Her coronation—King Edward's vows—Unkindness to his Queen—The Queen's spiritual friends—Westminster Abbey founded—Editha's pious donations—Leofrina's will—Curious stone picture on the screen at Westminster Abbey—Quarrel of Tostig and Harold, when boys, represented—Installation of Leofric, Bishop of Exeter—Famine—Edward remits the tax of Danegelt—Rupture with Earl Godwin—Flight of Godwin and his family to Flanders—His banishment—Triumph of the Normans—Imprisonment of Queen Editha—Bishop Robert's accusation—A year of seclusion at Wherwell—Weakness of Edward—Godwin's triumphal return—Restoration of his party—The Queen returns to Court—Her triumph—Earl Godwin's sudden death—Edward sends for the son of Edmund Ironside—His arrival and death—Editha accused of cruelty—Royal chaplains—Dedication of Waltham Abbey—Bore-stall—Havering Bower—The pilgrim and the ring—Dedication of St. Peter's, Westminster—The King's death—Harold succeeds—Battle of Hastings—William the Conqueror—Editha's epitaph.
EDITHA "THE FAIR,"

QUEEN OF HAROLD II.
The father of Editha—Godiva, wife of Leofric—Wealth and power of the Earl of Coventry—The famous legend considered—Leofric's munificence to the Church—The lines in the painted window—Godiva's donation to Coventry Abbey—Algar, father of Editha the Fair, flies to Wales—Marries his daughter to the Welsh Prince, Griffith ap Llewelyn—Nest, his first wife—Her sons—Griffith ap Conan and his wife Angharaud—Violent contentions of the Welsh and English—Restoration of Algar—Harold pursues the Welsh—Defeats them—Lays siege to and burns Ruddlan Castle—Editha the Fair taken prisoner—Death of Griffith—Harold marries his widow—Hereford destroyed and re-fortified—Harold's pillars—His breach of promise to Adeliza—Harold becomes King—The battle of Hastings—The search for the body—Editha the Swan-necked—The Recluse of Chester—Eddeva Dives—Her possessions seized by the Conqueror—Stortford in Hertfordshire—The tomb discovered.
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