History of Norfolk

See also article on Norfolk

This history of the County of Norfolk, England is broken into specific time periods.

Prehistoric Norfolk

Norfolk has a very rich prehistoric past, from the Palaeolithic 750,000 years ago, to end of the Iron Age 2000 years age. Indeed, Norfolk has the earliest evidence of Human occupation of what is now Britain, and some of the best-preserved archaeological sites in Britain.

Palaeolithic

The period from almost three quarters of a million years ago until around 10,000 years ago.

During the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods the coast of Norfolk would have been 60-70 km further to the north than today, with much of the North Sea a wide, open plain. The size of the habitable land would have varied through the different glacial and interglacial periods up until the end of the Anglian glaciation, as would have the climate, flora and fauna, and the general landscape of Norfolk. The Anglian glaciation was the 3rd from last glacial stage and occurred between 400,000 and 500,000 years ago. This stage was the last time the ice sheets reached East Anglia and it resulted in the deposits known as the Corton Formations.

The Evidence. The majority of the evidence for Lower and Middle Palaeolithic occupation in East Anglia survives as redeposited flakes and tools recovered from river gravel deposits. These river gravels were laid by the ancestral Thames and Bytham River systems. Large quantities of artefacts were identified from gravel quarries during the 19th and early 20th century due to the increased demand for gravel in the construction industry and the hand sorting of this gravel.

Lower Palaeolithic

Bones and flint tools found in coastal deposits near Happisburgh. The artefacts were in situ in riverine deposits of the Cromer Forest Bed series. Experts previously thought the earliest humans arrived 500,000 years ago.

The flint assemblage consists of;

The importance of the flint assemblage of Happisburgh is not just to the understanding the prehistory of Norfolk, but to the understanding of prehistoric Europe. This is due to the first mentioned hand axe in the assemblage. The hand axe is an ovate handaxe made from black flint with pale grey coarse-grained inclusions, one face carries two small areas of pebble cortex, and is in near perfect condition. This handaxe is believed to be the earliest tool yet found in Europe; it was probably used as a knife for cutting up carcasses.

The environmental conditions of Happisburgh, shown through pollen analysis, suggests a picture of a temperate woodland with areas of fen carr and aquatic plants growing in a maritime environment of tidal sediments. With evidence showing a preponderance of pine and alder, with oak, elm and hornbeam also present; members of the galingale, buttercup and nettle families point to fen or reedswamp environments, while water-starwort, water lilies and bulrushes are among the aquatic plants present.

Other Lower Palaeolithic sites in Norfolk inclued:

  • Whitlingham:**worked flint, **tool, **cleaver, **axe, **collection of Lower Palaeolithic flint implements, including three flint cleavers and five flint handaxes

There is little evidence of human occupation during the subsequent Ipswichian interglacial between around 180,000 and 70,000 years ago, lead.


MacRae, R.J. 1999. New Lower Palaeolithic Finds in Norfolk. Lithics: The Newsletter of the Lithic Studies Society 20: 3-9.

Middle Palaeolithic

Roughtly 60,000 years age to 30,000 years ago.

Well-preserved in-situ Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites are exceedingly rare in Europe and very unusual within a British context.

In-situ mammoth remains and associated Mousterian stone tools and debitage. The artefactual, faunal and environmental evidence were sealed, in-situ, within a Middle Devensian palaeochannel with a dark organic fill. 44 pristine Mousterian flint handaxes, the remains of at least nine Mammuthus primigenius, (woolly mammoths).

The assemblage.

Some 590 worked flint artefacts consisting of number of handaxes (pointed, subcordiform, cordiform, ovate and bout coupé forms), three cores and a number of retouched, utilised and waste flakes were individually recorded with over 1,000 pieces of microdebitage recovered from the 0.50 m2 spit units. A number of the handaxes and flakes were found in direct association with bones and/or tusks. The artefacts are generally fresh and relatively sharp with minimal abrasion or post-depositional edge damage. Typologically the assemblage falls within the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) facies of the Middle Palaeolithic.

The Fauna, flora and evironmental evidence.

In total, some 2,079 bones, tusks, antlers and teeth of Mammuthus primigenius (mammoth), Coelodonta antiquitatis(woolly rhinoceros), Rangifer tarandus (reindeer), Equus ferus (horse), Bison priscus (bison), Canis lupus (wolf), Vulpes vulpes or Alopex lagopus (red or arctic fox) and Ursus arctos (brown bear) were individually recorded and a further 25,000 bone, tooth and tusk fragments recovered. Feces of scavengers (possibly the spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta) were also recovered from the organic sediments. No articulated skeletons were found. The bone varied in condition with some bones extensively weathered and others exhibiting traces of gnawing by predator-scavengers. Bone fractures characteristic of marrow extraction by hominids have been identified on the some of the reindeer and horse bones recovered from the deposit. The faunal remains recovered from the palaeochannel are typical of the Pin Hole Mammal Assemblage Zone of the Middle Devensian.

Through archaeo-environmental analysis, 150 species of insect have been identified. These indicate the presence of standing water, marsh, bare sand and grass. Dung and carcass beetles add to the picture of giant rotting mammals being scavenged by hyenas and Neanderthals. The presence of sub-arctic plants, insects and snails at this site indicates that the Neanderthals of this time lived in a climate like that of modern Scandinavia.

Interpretation The mammoths appear to have been butchered but it is unclear whether these beasts were hunted, or their meat simply scavenged from corpses. The site is internationally important due to the rarity of such sites being preserved.

Other sites There is little evidence from this period. Other sites within modern Norfolk include:

  • Little Cressingham see; Lawson, 1978: ‘A Hand Axe from Little Cressingham’, AJ Lawson (E Anglian Archaeology Report #8, 1978; p.1)

Upper Palaeolithic

The Upper Palaeolithic period covers the end of the last glaciation Devensian Stage and the immediate post-glacial period Flandrian. At the beginning of this period Britain was a part of the European landmass and settlement in Norfolk was just an extension of the settlement of the North European Plain, while by the end of this period it had become more or less the island that we now know. At the end of the Devensian the sea-level was about 30 m below present with most of the land becoming forested with the ameliorating climate. In the mid 9th millennium BP, with the breaching of the land bridge, East Anglia became cut off from the rest of north-west Europe. Sea levels rose rapidly and peat formation commenced in low lying areas.

Although material has been recovered from across the region dating to this period, there have been very few large scale excavations, particularly in recent years. The majority of material identified from East Anglia consists of stray artefacts with only a few known stratified sites. Norfolk also lacks the cave sites which have proved to be so important for the preservation of sites in other areas e.g. Kent's Cavern, Torbay, Devon; Creswell Crags, Derbyshire; Gough’s Cave, Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. The Earlier Upper Palaeolithic is very poorly represented across the whole region although there is somewhat more known from the Later Upper Palaeolithic.

Earily Upper Palaeolithic Flint leaf points reported at Heacham and Feltwell but it is not certain that they are not products of the later, Neolithic industries which also included leaf points.

List of sites

  • Carrow Road football ground. Experts believe the tools could be from the Upper Palaeolithic era, could be 12,000 years old, from 10,000 BC.
  • Titchwell, near Brancaster, is a beach site exposed only at very low tides which has yielded a large collection of Late Up Palaeo flints and is clearly a near-intact land surface, suffering slow erosion. (J J Wymer and P A Robins 1994)

Healy F., 1996 The Fenland Project No. 11: The Wissey Embayment: evidence for pre-Iron Age occupation accumulated prior to the Fenland Project, E. Anglian Archaeol. 78, 53

J J Wymer and P A Robins 1994 A long blade flint industry beneath boreal peat at Titchwell, Norfolk Norfolk Archaeology, Vol XLII, part 1

In general this period is still poorly understood in Norfolk.

Mesolithic

The beginning of the Holocene corresponds with the beginning of the Mesolithic age in most of Europe around 10,000 years ago. Temperatures rose, probably to levels similar to those today, and forests expanded further. By 8,500 years ago, the rising sea levels caused by the melting glaciers cut Britain off from continental Europe for the last time. The warmer climate changed the arctic environment to one of pine, birch and alder forest; this less open landscape was less conducive to the large herds of reindeer and horse that had previously sustained humans. Those animals were replaced in people's diets by less social animals such as elk, red deer and aurochs which would have required different hunting techniques in order to be effectively exploited. Tools changed to incorporate barbs which could snag the flesh of a hunted animal, making it harder for it to escape alive. Tiny microliths were developed for hafting onto harpoons and spears. Woodworking tools such as adzes appear in the archaeological record, although some flint blade types remained similar to their Palaeolithic predecessors. The dog was domesticated because of its benefits during hunting and the wetland environments created by the warmer weather would have been a rich source of fish and game. It is likely that these environmental changes were accompanied by social changes with the groups that inhabited Britain at this time. Evidence from other parts of Britain suggest that during this period the people where becoming more settled rather than solely nomadic see Howich on the Northumbrian coast, Dunbar in East Lothian, although there is no evidence found in Norfolk to date.

Sites

  • Titchwell has a rich site of the Late Glacial and Early Mesolithic period. The site lay beside a small stream but the then coastline was still far distant- the sea level 60 meters below its present level.
  • Leman and Ower Banks, 40 km off Norfolk. A barbed antler point radiocarbon dated to about 9800BC, dredged off the sea bed in 1931.

Due to the coast being much further out than the present coast line and the barded antler point found in the North Sea suggests there are many more Early Mesolithic sites under the North Sea off the Norfolk coast.

Other inland sites

  • Kelling Heath. In terms of scattered flintwork over a large area, Kelling Heath is one of the richest site of this time in Norfolk. With artifacts including cores, blades, flakes, in all 51 Mesolithic flint objects; 3 two-platform blade cores, 3 one-platform blade cores, 1 core, 15 blades and bladelets, 29 flakes and flake fragments. Due to the intensely acid soil of this part of the Cromer Ridge nothing but the flintwork has survived. From such a high (high for Norfolk) vartage point would have allowed the Mesolithic hunters magnificent views of the wide plains that is now the North Sea, which may have been the reason for the vesits, probably seasonal from generation to generation.
  • Spong Hill. There are signs of forest clearance by burning from this site.

The Breckland district seems to have been attractive to hunter-gatherers during the Late Mesolithic (circa 6,000 BC - 4000 BC). This may be due to its proximity to the fen-edge and salt marshes, rich in wildfowl, and eels. The lighter soils of Breckland, lighter than on the claylands to the north, would have resulted in the wildwoods being less dence enabling easier hunting of deer species etc. Two recent excavations in different parts of Thetford

  • Redcastle Furze near Thetford, Mesolthic flintworking site
  • Two Mile Bottomen found in the Brecks, including along the Little Ouse Valley, and around the edges of the meres (small lakes).

The Heavier Boulder clay of the Norfolk till plain has a site that has produced more flint tranchet axes than any other in East Anglia

Neolithic

The Neolithic period, 4000-2500BC, has produced a larger archaeological record than the previous prehistoric periods due to their impact and changing their surroundings that the neolithic peoples had on the landscape, from industrial to maybe religious needs. By the time of the neolithic Norfolk, like the rest of Britain, was cut off from mainland Europe by the North Sea and the English channel.

Norfolk has revealed important information concerning this period in British history.

Neolithic communities seem to have preferred Norfolk's light soils and well-drained river valley tracts, rather than the heavily wooded central claylands, although these where probably occupied to some extent and also exploited for hunting and foraging. Excavation results indicate that the woodland was dominated by oak and pine, see Broome Heath and Colney. The fertile Rich Loam region of north and east Norfolk, with its loess-rich soils, may have been especially congenial, and the number of possible monuments here is striking.

Neolithic settlements

  • Broome Heath The Broome Heath earthwork formed part of a monument complex which seems to have developed over some time, with a long barrow and round barrow constructed north-east of the northern terminal of the C-sharped enclosure, and a round barrow south-east of the southern terminal.
  • Kilverstone, Thetford, 226 earlier Neolithic pits interprecated as temporay occupation site (Garrow et-al 2005).

Duncan Garrow, Emma Beadsmoore & Mark Knight. 2005. Pit Clusters and the Temporality of Occupation: an Earlier Neolithic Site at Kilverstone, Thetford, Norfolk. In VOLUME 71, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society

Causewayed enclosures

All of the Norfolk Causewayed enclosure sites appear to be approximately circular, defined by relatively narrow ditches and pit sections, interspersed with narrow causeways. These enclosures are generally defined by single ditches, however the recently published plot of Roughton (Oswald et al, 2001: fig. 6.7), has identified a second, more ephemeral, inner ditch or feature. The three possible Norfolk examples are relatively small and have a marked circularity in comparison to many other causewayed enclosure sites in England

  • Buxton with Lammas
  • Roughton
  • Salthouse in north-east Norfolk. The monument is approximately circular, with a diameter of 60 metres. The circuit appears to be divided into at least seven separate lengths of ditch, although there is a larger gap to the north where a further two stretches of ditch may be obscured. The enclosure lies at a height of 50 metres OD on a south facing slope. The location overlooks the areas to the East, South and West but is topographically situated slightly downslope from the higher ground to the immediate north.

The way in which they were used is not fully understood, but they may have been a meeting point for small, dispersed groups of people living in the surrounding area, a place where the exchange of goods, ritual feasting and other ceremonial activities might have taken place.

All three enclosures, the only sites of this type known from the county, are notable for their small size and circular shape. In national terms their morphology is rather anomalous, a characteristic which can be interpreted in a number of ways. It has been suggested that they may have more in common with hengiform monuments of the later Neolithic and early Bronze Age than with 'normal' causewayed enclosures of the fourth millennium BC. Alternatively, they might represent a regional tradition distinct to this part of the country. In addition, the geographical distribution of the sites is confined to north-east Norfolk. While some allowance can be made for the usual factors associated with the distribution of cropmark sites (soils, geology, etc.), at present it seems that the clustering of the three sites in the north-east of the county may be of archaeological significance. The smaller dimensions of the Norfolk sites may be a reflection of the size and dispersal of the communities creating, maintaining and using them and it may not be necessary to assume that they occurred later than elsewhere in Britain. Although at present no excavation has taken place on any of the Norfolk 'causewayed' enclosures so these questions have yet to be answered.

References

Oswald, A., Dyer, C, and Barber, M. 2001. The Creation of Monuments: Neolithic Causewayed Enclosures in the British Isles. Swindon: English Heritage

Henge sites

  • Arminghall A small henge at Arminghall in Norfolk which also enclosed a ring of posts has a diameter of only 30 metres. It lies near the junction of the rivers Yare and Tas, less than 4km south of the centre of Norwich. Two circular ring ditches, the outer one 1.5 m deep and the inner one 2.3 m deep, with indications of a bank that once stood between them. In the centre stood eight massive posts, almost 1 m in diameter. The site dates to the Neolithic, with a [radiocarbon]] date of 3650-2650 Cal BC (4440±150) from charcoal from a post-pit. The henge is orientated on the mid-winter sunset.
  • Markshall Another possible example, which has never seen excavation, has been recorded on the opposite side of the River Tas by aerial photography at Markshall (Wade-Martin 1999, plate 22).

References

Beex, W., Peterson, J 2004. 'The Arminghall henge in space and time: how virtual reality contributes to research on its orientation'. In [Enter the Past] The E-way into the four dimensions of Cultural Heritage, CAA2003, BAR International Series 1227, pp. 490-493, Oxford.

Clark, J.D.G., 1936 'The Timber Monument at Arminghall and its Affinities', Proceedings of the Prehisoric Society, 2, 1-51

Wade-Martin, P. (ed), 1999 Norfolk from the Air II


Neolithic Industry

  • Grimes Graves
    View of a seam of Flint in the Grimes Graves excavation.  The pit props are modern supports added when the site was excavated
    View of a seam of Flint in the Grimes Graves excavation. The pit props are modern supports added when the site was excavated
    is a large Neolithic flint mining complex near Brandon close to the border between Norfolk and Suffolk .A recent survey by English Heritage found that Grimes Graves was one of only ten Neolithic flint mines known in England, of which only six survive as earthworks. Dating from roughly 3000-2000 BC, mining began at the site during the later Neolithic and continued for a while into the Bronze Age. The Anglo-Saxons believed the site was the work of the god Grim - the place-name means 'Grim's quarries'. The available radiocarbon dates suggest that mining may have taken place over a period of between 500 and 1,000 years. It extends over an area of more than 20 ha (0.2 km² / 50 acres) and consists of almost 400 shafts dug into the natural chalk to reach seams of flint. The largest shafts are more than 13 m (30 feet) deep and 12 m in diameter at the surface. It has been calculated that more than 1,000 tonnes of chalk had to removed from the larger shafts, taking 12 men around six months, before stone of sufficient quality was reached. An upper and middle seam of flint was dug through on the way to the deeper third seam which most interested the miners. The mines were sunk at a rate of one every one or two years. Mining was therefore neither intensive, nor on an 'industrial' scale, as we understand the term today. The geology at Grimes Graves comprises a number of flint layers lying below sands and clays and interspersed between chalk. It was the upper three seams of flint which were exploited, and the lowest of the three, known as 'floorstone', was generally targeted because it was easily flaked, less flawed than flint from the other layers, and had a lustrous deep black colour. To get to the flint the Neolithic miners dug shafts up to 12m deep with radiating galleries at their base, as well as shallower pits from 3m to 8m deep. Some mines are grouped together with two or three in a single quarry, implying that some were dug in sequence.
  • Whitlingham Evidence has been found in the area of a Neolithic flint axe factory, including unfinished axes and waste flakes. In the 1700s a human skeleton, together with the picks made from deer's antlers, were found in one of the chalk tunnels - possibly the body of one of the Neolithic flint miners?

References

Ashwin, T. 1996. Neolithic and Bronze Age Norfolk. Proceeding of the Prehistoric Society 62, 41-62

Piggott, S., (1986) 'Early British craftsmen' Antiquity LX No 230, Pages 189-192.

Clutton-Brock, J., (1984) Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976 Fascicule 1: Neolithic Antler Picks From Grimes Graves, Norfolk, And Durrington Walls, Wiltshire: A Biometrical Analysis, British Museum Press, ISBN 0-7141-1374-3 Longworth, I., Herne, A., Varndell, G. and Needham, S., (1991) Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976 Fascicule 3: Shaft X: Bronze Age Flint, Chalk and Metalworking, British Museum Press, ISBN 0-7141-1396-4

Wainwright, G.J. 1972. The excavation of a Neolithic settlement on Broome Heath, Ditchingham, Norfolk, England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 38, 1-97.

Healy, F. (1984) 'Farming and field monuments: the Neolithic in Norfolk', in Barringer, C. (ed.) Aspects of East Anglian Prehistory (Twenty Years after Rainbird Clarke). Norwich: Geo Books: 77-140.

Bronze Age

Iron Age

Roman

In Roman times much of the county was farmed by Romanised locals and immigrants to the area. A number of Roman roads cross the county and Roman remains are known at Burnham Market, Caister-on-Sea, Burgh Castle, with evidence of Roman settlement quite widespread across the county. It is thought that the Romanised Britons used the area for farming, particularly cerials with some evidence of vineyards. Mention Boadicea and the Iceni.

Saxon Norfolk

Mediæval Norfolk

The City of Norwich was founded in the 1100s though the settlement is much older. Construction of Norwich cathedral began.

The story of Julian of Norwich (1342 - c.1429) also dates to this period. She is noted as being the first woman to have written a book in English.

Another legend from Norfolk dating to this period is the Pedlar of Swaffham. The legacy of this tale can be seen to this day in the choir area of the church. Here stand two wooden pews. One has the carvings of a pedlar and his dog, the other of a woman looking over the door of a shop.

Tudor Norfolk (1485-1603)

Stuart Norfolk (1603-1714)

18th Century Norfolk

1785 and 1786 saw the first Aviation Activity in the county of Norfolk when several manned gas balloon flights were made from Quantrell's Gardens in Norwich.

19th Century Norfolk

The coming of the railway.

20th Century Norfolk

Norfolk from 1900 to World War I

Norfolk during World War I

The First World War was significant to the county of Norfolk in a number of ways. Large numbers of men of fighting age were called up to join local regiments that were sent to fight in France, virtually every Norfolk village has a war memorial that records the names of those who lost their lives.

The war was the first time that significant aviation activity spread throughout the county with a large number of aerodromes and landing grounds being built. Significantly Pulham Market in the south of the county was one of the few locations where airships were stationed. Boulton and Paul in Norwich and Savages of Kings Lynn were both involved in aircraft production each company producing many hundreds of aircraft for the war effort, Boulton and Paul exists to the present time as a joinery company and remained in aviation as late as the 1960s.

The county was one of the first places on earth bombed from the air when German Zeppelin airships raided the county a number of times. Late in the war Zeppelin L70 was shot down off the Norfolk Coast by Major Egbert Cadbury of the Royal Air Force, onboard the doomed Zeppelin was Fregatenkapitan Peter Strasser, commander of the German Naval Airship Service, all on board were killed, a number of the men being buried in churchyards along the coast.

Norfolk 1919 to World War II

The interwar period saw the first sustained mechanisation of farms with horse drawn equipment gradually falling from use to be replaced with steam and petrol driven machinery. Many farms grew in size as smaller farms were swallowed up being uncompetitive.

Bibliography

Clarke, J. G. D. & Fell, C. I., (1953) ‘The Early Iron Age Site at Micklemoor Hill West Harling, Norfolk, and its Pottery’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 19 part 1 pp 1-40

Clarke, J. D. G., (1936) ‘The Timber Monument at Arminghall, and its Affinities’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 2 part 1 pp 1-51

Healy, F. M., (1988) The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Spong Hill, North Elmham, Part VI: Occupation during the Seventh to Second Millennia BC, East Anglian Archaeology 39, Norfolk Museums Service

Lawson, A. J., (1983) The Archaeology of Witton, East Anglian Archaeology 18, Norfolk Museums Service

Sainty, J. E., (1924) ‘A flaking site on Kelling Heath, Norfolk’ PSEA 4 pp 165-176

Sainty, J. E., (1925) ‘The Kelling flaking site’ PSEA 5 pp 283-287

Sainty, J. E., (1947) ‘Mesolithic sites in Norfolk’ in Norfolk Archaeology 28 pp 234-237

Wade-Martins, P., Ed., (1993) An Historical Atlas of Norfolk, Norfolk Museums and Archaeology Service

Wainwright, G. J., (1972) ‘The Excavation of a Neolithic Settlement on Broome Heath, Ditchingham, Norfolk’ PPS 38 pp 1-97

Wainwright, G. J., (1973) ‘The Excavation of Prehistoric and Romano-British Settlements at Eaton Heath, Norwich’ Arch J 130 pp 1-43

Williamson, T., (1993) The Origins of Norfolk, Manchester University Press

Wymer , J., (1991) Mesolithic Britain, Shire Archaeology

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