William, Prince of Orange

Crown Prince Willem
Dutch Royalty
House of Orange-Nassau

Coat of arms of the Netherlands.svg

William I
Children
   William II
   Prince Frederick
   Princess Paulina
   Marianne, Princess Albert of Prussia
Grandchildren
   Louise, Queen of Sweden and Norway
   Prince William
   Prince Frederick
   Marie, Princess of Wied
William II
Children
   William III
   Prince Alexander
   Prince Henry
   Prince Ernest Casimir
   Sophie, Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
William III
Children
   William, Prince of Orange
   Prince Maurice
   Alexander, Prince of Orange
   Wilhelmina
Wilhelmina
Children
   Juliana
Juliana
Children
   Beatrix
   Princess Irene
   Princess Margriet
   Princess Christina
Beatrix
Children
   Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange
   Prince Friso
   Prince Constantijn
Grandchildren
   Princess Catharina-Amalia
   Princess Alexia
   Princess Ariane
   Countess Luana
   Countess Zaria
   Countess Eloise
   Count Claus-Casimir
   Countess Leonore
William Nicholas Alexander Frederick Charles Henry, Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik, Prins van Oranje, Prins der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau; The Hague, 4 September 1840 – Paris, 11 June 1879), was heir apparent to his father King William III of the Netherlands from 17 March 1849 until his death.

Biography

Prince William was the eldest son of King William III of the Netherlands and his first wife, Princess Sophie of Württemberg. His nickname was Wiwill. At his birth, he held the third position in the line of succession to the Dutch throne and the seventeenth position in the line of succession to the British throne. A month afterwards on 7 October 1840, his great-grandfather, the reigning King William I of the Netherlands, abdicated the throne due to the disappointment over the recent Treaty of London, which recognised the independence of Belgium (previously provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands), and the intention of marrying a Roman Catholic and Belgian noblewoman, Henrietta d'Oultremont. In 1849, after the death of his grandfather King William II of the Netherlands, he became the heir apparent. His Victorian upbringing turned out to be a disaster.

He was the 87th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in 1857.

Crown Prince Willem

After the failed plans for a marriage between Prince William and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the second daughter of Queen Victoria, the prince fell in love with a Countess named Mathilde van Limburg-Stirum. The relationship between the prince and his parents became very problematic, as his parents refused to accept Mathilde as his bride. By the standards of the Dutch royal family, a marriage between a member of the royal family and a member of the nobility was unequal and unacceptable. Possibly it also had to do with King William III having had a relationship with Mathilde's mother. Thus he might have feared that Mathilde was Prince William's half-sister.

Prince William then went into exile in Paris, where he threw himself into a life of sex, drinking and gambling. Henriette Hauser, his Parisian mistress, gave the Prince of Orange the pet name Lemon, something that led to him being known in the Parisian boulevard papers as the Prince of Lemon when they reported about his debauched and scandaluous lifestyle. Prince William died at age 38 in his apartment in the Rue Auber, near the Paris Opera from a combination of typhus, liver complaints and total exhaustion. On 26 June 1879 his body was entombed in the royal crypt at the New Church of Delft. On his coffin there was a wreath from French Empress Eugénie and one from the British Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII).

After his death, his brother Prince Alexander became heir and Prince of Orange. However he also died before their father, who was now without direct male heirs. Neither his uncle, Prince Henry nor his great-uncle, Prince Frederick, had any male issue as well. The States-General adopted agnatic-cognatic primogeniture making his half sister, Princess Wilhelmina, heiress presumptive. Up until 1884, the Dutch throne used Salic Law. Princess Wilhelmina succeeded their father in 1890.

Titles

Ancestry

Prince William of Orange: ancestors in three generations
Prince William of Orange Father:
King William III of The Netherlands
(1817–1890)
Paternal Grandfather:
King William II of The Netherlands
(1792–1849)
Paternal Great-grandfather:
King William I of The Netherlands
(1772–1843)
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia
(1774–1837)
Paternal Grandmother:
Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia
(1795–1865)
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Emperor Paul I of Russia
(1754–1801)
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
(1759–1828)
Mother:
Princess Sophie of Württemberg
(1818–1877)
Maternal Grandfather:
King William I of Württemberg
(1781–1864)
Maternal Great-grandfather:
King Frederick I of Württemberg
(1754–1816)
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
(1764–1788)
Maternal Grandmother:
Grand Duchess Catherina Pavlovna of Russia
(1788–1819)
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Emperor Paul I of Russia
(1754–1801)
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
(1759–1828)

William, Prince of Orange
Born: 4 September 1840 Died: 11 June 1879
Dutch royalty
Preceded by
William, Prince of Orange
later became King William III
Prince of Orange
1849–1879
Succeeded by
Alexander, Prince of Orange
Heir to the Dutch throne
as heir apparent
1849–1879

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