Duncan II of Scotland

Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim
King of Scots
Reign 1094
Predecessor Domnall Bán
Successor Domnall Bán
Consort Octreda
Issue William fitz Duncan
Father Máel Coluim mac Donnchada
Mother Ingibiorg Finnsdottir
Died 12 November 1094
Buried Dunfermline Abbey

Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim (Duncan II) (before 1069–12 November 1094) was king of Scots. He was son of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson.

Donnchad was given into the keeping of William the Conqueror in 1072 as a hostage, and spent many years at court, where he was exposed to the newly arrived Norman culture. His father, who had many sons, appears to have made no effort to obtain Donnchad's return. By the reign of William Rufus, Donnchad was probably a member of the Norman court rather than a hostage, and he was knighted by the English King.

His father's chosen successor was Donnchad's half-brother Edward, who died in the same combat during the invasion of Northumbria in 1093 as did king Máel Coluim. Máel Coluim was succeeded by his brother Domnall Bán and Máel Coluim's other sons joined their half-brother Donnchad in England.

Donnchad received king William Rufus's tacit support for the Scottish kingship, but the English king did not extend direct support as he planned a campaign in Normandy. It is probably in the period 1093–1094 that Donnchad married Octreda (or Ethelreda), daughter of Cospatrick of Northumbria, although an earlier betrothal has been proposed. Accompanied by his Anglo-Norman followers, and perhaps by his older half-brothers, Donnchad easily defeated Domnall Bán in the early summer of 1094, but appears to have had little support north of the Forth, being reliant on his Northumbrian, English and Norman allies.

A revolt later in 1094 was directed against Donnchad's followers rather than the new king, but many of the Normans were killed and the rest sent away in order to settle the revolt. Domnall Bán's supporters appear to have rallied again, and Donnchad was murdered late in 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.

His son by Octreda, William fitz Duncan, was a prominent figure during the reigns of Donnchad's half-brothers Alexander and David.


Preceded by:
Domnall Bán
King of Scots
Succeeded by:
Domnall Bán
Monarchs of Scotland (Alba)
Traditional Kings of Picts: (Legendary Kings) | Drest of the 100 Battles | Talorc I | Nechtan I | Drest II | Galan | Drest III | Drest IV | Gartnait I | Cailtram | Talorc II | Drest V | Galam Cennalath | Bruide I | Gartnait II | Nechtan II | Cinioch | Gartnait III | Bruide II | Talorc III | Talorgan I | Gartnait IV | Drest VI | Bruide III | Taran | Bruide IV | Nechtan IV | Drest VII | Alpín I | Óengus I | Bruide V | Cináed II | Alpín II | Talorgan II | Drest VIII | Conall | Caustantín | Óengus II | Drest IX | Eogán | Ferat | Bruide VI | Cináed II | Bruide VII | Drest X
Traditional Kings of Scots: Cináed I | Domnall I | Causantín I | Áed | Eochaid | Giric | Domnall II | Causantín II | Máel Coluim I | Idulb | Dub | Cuilén | Cináed II | Amlaíb | Cináed II | Causantín III | Cináed III | Máel Coluim II | Donnchad I | Mac Bethad | Lulach | Máel Coluim III | Domnall III Bán | Donnchad II | Domnall III Bán | Edgar | Alexander I | David I | Máel Coluim IV | William I | Alexander II | Alexander III | First Interregnum | John | Second Interregnum | Robert I | David II | Edward | David II | Robert II | Robert III | James I | James II | James III | James IV | James V | Mary I | James VI* | Charles I* | The Covenanters | The Protectorate | Charles II* | James VII* | Mary II* | William II* | Anne*
* Also Monarch of Ireland and England

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